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Most of them were peaceful ideologues and ambitious social workers, not demagogues, hecklers, looters, or carriers of karosene. As examples of such activities can be mentioned the running of free medical centers, chreeches, nursery schools in slum areas, schools for girls, tailoring classes, small home industries for women, computer classes, family counselling centers, reading rooms, hostels for tribal girls, for 8 Fundamentalism and Women in World Religions daughters to leprosy patients, and for low-caste girls.
The enterprise is regarded as a revival of a Vedic acceptance of female ritual experts. Their dakshina fee is donated to the Samiti. The female purohits are proud of their vocation and are definitely aware of being pioneers. The Samiti holds out three women from the past as main role models for contemporary women.
The other two models represent two aspects of woman as activist for hindutva. She represents the ideal of kartitva, the capacity to work hard. She is glorified for her effective administration of the sovereign Hindu kingdom of Indore, for having cared for her people as a mother and for having renovated temples destroyed by the Mughals.
In times of crises Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi nineteenth century is the model to be inspired by. The RSSa female role models as described above are socially active women performing public roles and having a public influence. The hindutva cultural icons and female role models stand in stark contrast to prevalent traditional role models for Hindu women such as Sita, Savitri, and Sati who all personify the pativrata ideal, i.
In a speech Ms. Usha Chati, the third top leader of the RSSa from through , encouraged women to become socially active: Instead she stressed the qualities represented by the three RSSa role models. The historian Tanika Sarkar, the sociologist Paoloa Bacchetta, and the political scientist Sikata Banerjee have addressed the question why women have chosen to be actively involved with hindutva organizations.
One reason mentioned by all three scholars is that female hindutva activists actually experience benefits from their involvement with the hindutva movement. In their research they have encountered other kinds of activists than the ideologues I met with in Devi Ahalya Mandir. Sarkar declares that the middle-class women of the hindutva network during this phase of hindutva escalation were encouraged to re claim public spaces—they acted as political subjects, as leaders, and they were trained to view themselves as citizens.
Some of them acted in front positions, while others took part in the Ayodhyacampaign as grassroot activists. Sarkar has highlighted the benefits experienced by female hindutva activists. Her interviews with young members of the RSSa reveal that the women regard the daily physical training in shakha as a preparation for a civil war against Muslims and as a protection against Muslim rapists.
However, behind these ideologically correct answers Sarkar identifies other motifs.
Reiko Sawamura Asian And Doll With Hot AssShe makes the contention that these urban, upwardly mobile, affluent middle-class women experience the self-confidence and the physical training they get in the group as means of handling problems they face in daily life—spousal abuse, dowry murders, discrimination, and sexual harassment.
She is actively involved in the training of other young women in the martial arts. To propagate hindutva she travels alone in India, gives public speeches, and discusses hindu rashtra with primarily male activists. She chooses where to live, if to marry, and when she eventually marries she does not allow her new status to restrict her independence.
By her whole-hearted and successful involvement with the organization, Kamalabehn acquires freedom of choice and gets an outlet for her enthusiasm and talents. In spite of the fact that she transgresses the boundaries of a traditional role for a Hindu woman, she is assigned great status in her family, in the RSSa, and in the RSS as such.
Women such as Kamlabehn are tolerated within the movement, but they are to be assessed as the exception that proves the rule. Thereby, she contends, the organization has provided poor, powerless, and exposed women in slum areas with opportunities for a better life. However, at the same time as female members of the Shiv Sena have gained greater control over their personal lives and have been given access to the public arena by the alternative infrastructure provided by the SS, they have also been mobilized by the organization for violent actions.
After the destruction of the Babri Masjid in , a large number of women took an active part in the riots that followed. Women blocked the arrest of Shiv Sena leaders, prevented fire engines from going to Muslims areas on fire, looted stores, and are even reported to have attacked Muslim women. A third code, which I call woman as citizen, is also evident in the material.
The RSSa activities make it easier for individual women to take part in public life. In the RSSa schools for girls, the education in general subjects prepare them for college and university. And the training in practical affairs provides them with the possibility of earning money by their practical competence. The creeches, the small-scale industries for women and the health care clinics run by the RSSa facilitates such a choice.
More important, in the local grassroot group, the sevika systematically develops personality traits that help her to deal with challenges she might face in everyday life. In the group she learns to work hard, to take responsibility, to lead a group, to speak publicly, and to defend herself physically.
The confidence and discipline gained are valuable assets when applying and competing for employment. Like most hindutva organizations, it projects itself as a socio-cultural organization working for the implementation of Hindu values in society. Character-building, not political rights, is the means per se to reach this objective.
In fact, the demand for individual rights is condemned as a non-Hindu Western ideal detrimental for social harmony, a foundational quality of the utopian hindu rashtra. In its election manifesto, the party launched an ambitious twenty-nine point agenda titled Nari shakti: Towards Empowerment of Women. A development bank to cater for the financing need of women entrepreneurs and self-employed women was suggested, as was the promise for free education for women up to graduation, including professional studies like medicine and engineering.
They deal with qualities, roles, tasks, and arenas held to be appropriate for women. The fourth and the fifth codes woman as the daughter of Bharat Mata and woman as female cell in the living organism of Hindu society , on the other hand, add a metaphysical dimension to the lives of women. With the help of two nonhistorical symbols for an assumed female essence, ideal womanhood is inscribed into a religious context.
Woman as the daughter of Bharat Mata is a fourth code of ideal womanhood to be expounded. To the hindutvavadis, proponents of hindutva, she is above all regarded as a personification of the holy land and as the mother inspiring her daughters and sons to implement dharma, the eternal cosmic law, i. In her activist form Bharat Mata is an inciting war goddess. One of them acts as precentor—the sevikas take turn at leading the recital since everyone is trained in leadership.
She chants the text and the others repeat her words. During the recital everybody stands at strict attention in front of the bhagva dvaj with the right arm placed horizontally in front of the chest. In the hymn the sevikas eulogize the goddess Bharat Mata and identify themselves as her daughters sutah. In this scenario woman is accorded a cosmically meaningful task.
As a child of the inciting Bharat Mata, she, like her male siblings, is to work for the implementation of the dharmic order in the world and to fight anything that poses a threat to this order. As the daughter of Bharat Mata and as a female soldier in her army she in addition has a specifically female function to perform in the mission of establishing dharma in Bharat.
This code is based on the hindutva idea that every Hindu, be it woman or man, is a constituent of a metaphysical entity referred to as Hindu society hindu samaj. It is perceived as a living, divine organism consisting of limbs, organs, and cells representing different social units, institutions, and individuals. Ideally, according to the organistic hindutva worldview all these units should be imprinted with hindutva, i.
Men are encouraged to develop and use their masculine qualities in furthering the hindutva project while women are supposed to refine and direct their feminine essence for the building of hindu rashtra. Pramila Medhe, the general secretary of the RSSa, illustrated this line of argumentation.
She stated femininity to be radically different from masculinity and took for granted a female inborn essence, which is not culture bound but which is present in every woman. The sexes are certainly radically Open Space and Double Locks 13 different in essence as well as in qualities, but they are at the same time complementary to each other and are accordingly given gender-based functions and responsibilities.
In laying out the conception of gender, Pramila Medhe made explicit use of Hindu concepts. The assumed female essence was identified with the cosmological principles prakriti and shakti, i. The male principle was equated with purusha, the conscious subject that gives direction to the creative power and accords form to matter.
In arguing for the ontological and the functional complementarity between the sexes, she referred to the established Hindu symbol Ardhanarishvara, god as half male with Shiva representing the male qualities of divinity and half female with Parvati representing the female attributes of divinity. When speaking about the necessity of controlling or directing the female essence in order to make it beneficial, she made use of Hindu symbols as well.
Likewise the female trimurti, i. A woman thus endowed with controlled femininity brings about social harmony and wealth. She has an understanding of the aims of life and of the duties to be performed. She knows the proper use of material resources, fights against evil tendencies, and inspires others to lead righteous lives. If women do not live accordingly, chaos will be the result.
Hence Ms. Astha Bhuja is a new Hindu goddess that was created by Ms. Lakshmi Kelkar, the founder of RSSa. She is also referred to as matrishakti,46 which in the RSSa connotes the essential female power, which is being contained for positive ends. But Astha Bhuja is also regarded as a symbol of the ideal Hindu woman. For the objective of protecting dharma and samskriti and for establishing 14 Fundamentalism and Women in World Religions hindu rashtra, a woman should develop and direct her female nature as represented by Astha Bhuja The eight arms of Astha Bhuja signify her capacity for hard work and in her hands are symbols representing the fully developed qualities of the ideal Hindu woman: Since she in addition represents the ideal feminine form she denotes that every woman is expected to develop and to make perfect her inherent female nature and to use her womanly qualities for hindutva.
In the discourse of hindutva organicism Astha Bhuja represents the fully developed female cell that functions perfectly for the benefit of the living organism of Hindu society. Lastly, I draw attention to a sixth code—woman as symbol for Hindu society. That women are included in the modern functional systems does not necessarily imply that they have to abandon ascribed essential feminine qualities such as chastity, purity, unselfishness, adaptability, service mindedness, and a sacrificial and motherly attitude.
On the one hand the ideal Hindu woman has been contrasted to egotistic, greedy, and immoral feminists and Western women in general. Such values were according to her related to individual progress and selfcenteredness and made women lose their inborn female qualities such as a commitment to sacrifice and service. She warned that this eventually might lead to the Open Space and Double Locks 15 disintegration of the family, which she regarded the primary social unit for imparting correct samskaras read: The Samiti was started to counter such tendencies.
The polarization against Muslims has as well been common in the hindutva movement. Scholars such as the Indian historians Urvashi Butalia and Purshottam Agarwal have argued that woman as symbol has been used by the hindutva movement for the sake of mobilizing against and for demonizing the Muslim minority.
In the preceding sections I have explored six hindutva codes for ideal womanhood, i. Woman as political mother, as activist for hindutva, as citizen in a Hindu India, as daughter of Bharat Mata, as female cell in the body of Hindu society, and as symbol for the Hindu community have been investigated. She is thus supposed to carry on the organistic worldview of hindutva with its insistence on harmony that is held to be in concord with dharma, or the eternal transcendent principle; she is to rely on interpreters of dharma for guidance in mundane matters, to accept the injunction that individuals and social groups are to strive for the well-being of society at large as defined by leading hindutvavadis, to carry on a collective identity, to live according to an ethics of duty, and to mark against individuals and groups challenging fundamental hindutva norms.
First, the codes make women visible. Second, the codes ascribe value to women. They are recognized as pillars of the family and of society at large. She may break the traditional roles for women as daughter, wife, and mother economically dependent on her father, her husband, or her sons. In comparison to the contemporary situation for girls and women, it offers prospects of improved living conditions.
Women within the movement get visibility, appreciation, and are presented with positive selfimages. They are offered jobs, child care, education, protection, freedom of action, new public roles, responsibility, and are accorded tasks in the creation of hindu rashtra. This implies that women have a certain degree of freedom to choose how to live their lives as political mother, activist, and citizen, and that individual women are provided with resources for improving their lives.
The fact that men are supposed to be reliable heads of the household and the prime breadwinners in addition gives many women the prospect of better living conditions. To gain acceptance they have to adapt to a collective female identity according to which women are expected to carry the honor of the group, mainly by transmitting and conforming to the culturally conservative hindutva values identified in this article.
Women are expected to restrain their personal aspirations and to make the needs of the family a priority. If a woman works outside her own household, she is encouraged to work on a voluntary basis or only in order to add to the income of the family.
What happens to the woman who refuses to be a cultural icon of the hindutva movement? What happens to the woman who questions the hegemonic hindutva ideology and advocates a secular and multicultural India? What happens to the woman who questions the idea of an essential difference between women and men and stresses the similarities, i.
The hindutva construction of female gender undoubtedly empowers women to a certain extent, but is the movement really prowoman in its deeper layers? We now turn to explore this question. Hindutva Boundaries for Female Gender After thus having depicted and preliminary assessed six codes for ideal womanhood in the hindutva discourse, it is now time to locate the boundaries and the conditions for the empowerment of women inherent in the codes.
The Hindutva Brand of a Patriarchal Gender System The Swedish historian Yvonne Hirdman has introduced the concept of gender system for the analysis of power relations between women and men. One is the rule of distinctive separation, which can be seen in the division of virtually all areas and levels of life into male and female categories.
The second rule is that of the male norm, i. By this logic women and men are ascribed separate qualities, directed into separate social arenas, and are assigned separate tasks. The hierarchization between the sexes is the other principle for gendering. Man is the norm representing human being in general: Men and women are accorded radically different inborn essences as well as psychological and physical features.
In society they are directed into separate arenas where they are expected to perform gender specific tasks. The fact that women are accorded the responsibility to carry on a set of prescribed culturally conservative values to the family and are regarded as symbolic capital for hindutva further entail that women have to keep well within the the fixed boundaries of hindutva.
Consequently they run the risk of being punished if transgressing them. Men, on the other hand, work in public space, and in the main organizations that set the agenda for the hindutva movement at large, or in one of its numerous affiliates. The code woman as female cell in the social body conveys the idea that the female essence shakti, prakriti , which every woman is endowed with, has to be controlled by the male principle purusha in order to be auspicious.
In matters of authority the idea makes women second to men. Men set the agenda, and women are instrumental in carrying out and maintaining plans designed by men. To put it bluntly, men direct women who in their turn might be delegated the authority to direct other women. This is not the case in the hindutva gender system. According to the hindutva worldview, masculinity is radically different from femininity, and the difference is metaphysically founded.
But masculinity and femininity as well as man and woman are regarded as necessary complements to each other. Each category reflects a special quality of the divine. The interplay between them is regarded as necessary for the harmonious functioning of society.
This implies that masculinity and femininity as well as men and women are held to be of equal worth. Although the sexes are accorded gender-bound tasks in everyday life, male tasks and female tasks are ascribed the same value. This is a gender system that can be qualified as a patriarchal gender system with equity, not equality, as one of its distinguishing mark. The idea of equity assigns the same value to every individual but holds that they, due to different innate qualities, are fit to perform different social tasks.
Actually the idea of equity is foundational in the hindutva organic worldview. In this article the equity between the sexes is in focus. However, other constructions of primal identities such as race and caste can also be structured according to the equity scheme. I apply her distinctions to further examine the rules or norms for gender that we have identified in the hindutva patriarchal gender system.
Lundgren defines constitutive norms as being presupposed, relatively stable, and often invisible. The cost for breaking them is generally high. Regulative norms on the other hand are more flexibile and also more easily recognizable. Women may choose not to become mothers and instead work for hindutva in various capacities, sometimes together with male activists.
Women are neither deprived of civil rights. Like men they are accorded the right to education, to political positions, and to employment outside the home. The female purohit is an example of a woman adopting a traditional male role that we have encountered in the material.
But women may transgress the norm without being harassed or expelled from the community. The code woman as female cell in the social body gives a conception of how women are and how they shall act. The essentially feminine is said to consist of a potential destructivity and an inherent inability to set boundaries while the essentially male is said to represent opposite qualities.
Women can act relatively freely within these boundaries, but they are not in the position to set the agenda in a radical manner nor to redefine the boundaries. In questions of power and authority is it, however, a constitutive, i. Gender male as well as female is inscribed into the overarching hindutva organic ideology in which the view of society as a living divine organism and its corollaries complementarianism, the stress on equity, harmony, and conflict reduction are some of the main characteristics.
As the daughter of Bharat Mata, controlled shakti, or female cell in the body of Hindu society, a woman is expected to contribute to the hindutva project in various ways: As distinctive scripts for gender in the hindutva discourse we have noticed the principle of distinct separation, the gender assymetry to the benefit of men, the ideal of equity in matters of the valuation of female and male qualities and tasks, and the ideological contexualization of gender.
Two of these scripts have been found to be of a constitutive nature: And the individual woman in her part runs the risk of being branded as a destructive force if her behavior and actions are not in concord with the constitutive norms of the hindutva gender system. For her spiritual development the sevika is free to choose her own sadhana, or means of realization.
There is no prescribed Samiti way for spiritual development, but it is a matter solely for the individual woman. The sevikas I had the privilege to meet with were all pious women whose personal spirituality was in tune with orthodox advaita vedanta or its more recent adaptation neo-vedanta.
At the same time the women were careful about performing the household rites in a ritually correct manner. For the well-being of their families they daily carried out the prescribed pujas to the kuladevatas, the family deities, in accordance with Sanskritic ritual manuals. It was also important for the women to carry out or to let the appropriate Hindu rites of passage be carried out to mark the various life stages of the individual.
By practicing, preserving, and transmitting the orthodox Sanskritic tradition, the sevikas saw themselves as safeguarding an unbroken Hindu tradition. The adherence to Sanskritic orthopraxi hence functioned as a cultural marker for them. Although it might be important for the individual sevika to increase her spirituality and to carry on the Sanskritic ritualism in the family, the prime concern of the RSSa is to encourage the sevikas to take part in the building of a Hindu India.
When observing the regular activities in the local group, I soon discovered that rituals, symbols, and concepts from the Sanskritic tradition were central. The meetings in shakha always began with a collective rite. With words and bodily gestures the sevikas paid homage to the saffron-colored flag representing dharma and to the goddess Bharat Mata.
At the heart of the hindutva discourse is a religious narrative with a sociopolitical focus. The building blocks of the narrative are a selection of Hindu elements such as concepts, symbols, motifs, texts, and rituals, which are being reused and adjusted for new purposes. The long-term goal is to mould Bharat in accordance with dharma, thereby implementing eternal values and insights.
In the struggle the individual is assigned utmost importance. To carry out her duty properly she needs guidance from role models and people with the competence to interpret dharma in various situations. Thereby binding beliefs, values, and behavior for women are provided, and women are assigned socially and cosmically important roles.
The RSSa narrative on women 1 assigns meaning to the life of the individual woman. Her prime contribution to the undertaking is to care for the family in a proper dharmic manner. Hindu women are ascribed the sacred mission of implementing dharma in Bharat. Since dharma is identified with a general principle that gives overall directions for the organization of society—and not with the static injunctions of the classical dharmashastra-literature—it is flexible and hence applicable in new situations.
The hindutva message about the dignity and the responsibility of women in contemporary India is 22 Fundamentalism and Women in World Religions formulated in a religious language familiar to most women with a Hindu background. The metaphysically informed narrative is crucial for ascribing legitimacy to constitutive norms for female gender that we have recognized.
Two such norms are held to be in tune with dharma. A woman who develops her feminine qualities in the proper manner thereby lives according to dharma. Women and men are supposed to keep well within the organic worldview of hindutva, which is held to be in concord with dharma.
Hence they are to take for granted a rule from above, to rely on interpreters of dharma for guidance in mundane matters, to strive for the well-being of society at large as defined by those in power, to carry on a collective identity, to live according to an ethics of duty, and to mark against individuals and groups challenging or refuting norms inherent in the hindutva organicism.
Since both norms are metaphysically legitimated, they are non-negotiable. If transgressing these normative scripts, women are held to pose threats against a dharmic social order. Such women are branded as adharmic or demonic. However, within these constitutive norms women are faced with opportunities for reform and empowerment.
The Hindutva Alternative for Women in a Global Setting Previous research on women and hindutva has by and large emphasized the Indian context, and hindutva has been analyzed as communalism. Thereby I of course do not reduce the importance of this aspect of hindutva. Globalization implies that the world becomes a smaller place, and that a multiplicity of outlooks, cultures, identities, and competing grand narratives appear on the same arena.
In the globalizing process a Open Space and Double Locks 23 feminism with universalist claims has been challenged by a variety of feminisms. In the late modern world the Western ideological systems capitalism, communism, liberalism, secular nationalism, feminism are no longer taken for granted. They have been tried out and have failed to bring about the good society.
In the void after the eroding —isms, religious narratives with a sociopolitical focus grow all the more important. By launching religion for social guidance, they represent a reaction against the functional differentiation that characterizes the modern secular way of organizing society. Some of them are of a limited extent, or to use a terminology introduced by Bruce Lincoln, they are minimalist.
Other narratives are more comprehensive or maximalist. Murli Manohar Joshi, the then president of the BJP, vented his criticism against the UN conference on women and development that was held in Beijing in Similar conceptions of Western feminism have been found in the RSSa material. Under the pretext of representing an authentic Indian alternative for women, the hindutva movement claims a place and legitimacy in the heterogenous global society.
In global society the hindutva movement hence demands respect for its very alternative for women. In the Indian context on the contrary there is no question of a generous pluralism. Thereby every dissenting voice is effectively silenced or demonized. The costs for taking part of benefits such as reforms, education that women are offered by the hegemonic hindutva movement are high indeed, but the Indian woman who chooses to be independent faces the risk of having to pay an even higher price.
Primary material for the study has been drawn from the Rashtra Sevika Samiti, RSSa, which is the oldest and one of the largest hindutva groups for women. Women get visibility, appreciation, and are presented with positive self-images. They are offered sisterhood, jobs, child care, education, protection, freedom of action, responsibility, and are accorded agency in the creation of hindu rashtra.
These facts partly explain the success of the movement among women during the last years. We have, however, realized that the dignity and the empowerment offered to women is associated with costs. One purpose of the article has been to investigate the role of religion in the hindutva appropriation of female gender.
It is a religious narrative with a sociopolitical focus providing a transcendentally legitimated blueprint for social transformation. Gender is a vital theme in this holistic religious narrative. The RSSa metaphysically informed narrative on women has been found to ascribe legitimacy to the foundational scripts for female gender.
It projects the hindutva patriarchal gender system, with its insistence on the difference but complementarianism between the sexes, as an eternal and divine gender order. It also projects the hindutva organicism with its insistence on social harmony Open Space and Double Locks 25 as such. In this work the notion of equity has been used to distinguish the hindutva patriarchal gender system.
It should be regarded as one instance of an overall ideology that is constructed in opposition to the Western enlightenment or liberal ideal of equality. The idea of equity accords the same value to every individual or group but holds that they, due to different innate qualities, are fit to perform different social tasks.
Such a system makes women into participants in the functional social systems such as health, education , gives them a place in the social project, and views men and women as of equal worth. In a deeper sense, however, it broadens the gap between the sexes. By stressing the difference and the complementarity between the sexes, it proposes a far-reaching keeping apart of men and women and invites a hierarchization in matters of authority.
A patriarchal gender system in which the idea of equity is central can be contrasted to feminisms stressing the value of unqualified equality between individuals. It opts for equal rights and equal opportunities for individuals, regards gender as a cultural construction, i. The article is finished off with the hypothesis that the kind of alternative for women projected by the hindutva movement is emerging as an important option in the globalization process.
Modernity in the sense of the functionally differentiated social systems poses no problem to such movements. However, seen as problematic are the ideas and values connected with modernity, i. The complementarity between the sexes, an essentialistic understanding of masculinity and femininity, and an underlying hierarchization to the benefit of men are launched as indigenous, authentic, and uncompromisable fundamentals.
Women are ascribed value and dignity, reforms for women are initiated, and women are appreciated primarily as political mothers, but the underlying power structures between the sexes are left intact. Such movements stand in stark contrast to secular feminisms rooted in the modernity discourse. On a more general level they stress the foundational similarity between men and women, strive for an unconditional equality between the sexes, and work for the eradication of any 26 Fundamentalism and Women in World Religions gender-based inequality.
Notes 1. Savarkar — , one of the early ideologues of the movement, coined the concept. Savarkar, Hindutva Pune: Date, , Hindu nationalism thus represents one type of German romantically inspired nationalism that is to be contrasted to a territorially conceived nationalism with the social contract as the criterion for citizenship. Nari shakti. Empowerment of women. Basu et al. Orient Longman, , 42, 44; B.
Cossman and R. Basu and P. Jeffery New York: Routledge, ; P. Gender, Violence and Resistence, ed. Jacobs, R. Jacobson, and J. Marchbank New York: Zed Books, , For a study of the hindutva movement from the perspective of political science, see C.
Viking, For a study of the RSS, see W. Andersen and S. Damle, The Brotherhood in Saffron: Vistaar Publications, Rashtra Sevika Samiti: An Organisation of Hindu Women Nagpur: Sevika Prakashan, , 2. Life Sketch of Vandaniya Mausiji Nagpur: Sevika Prakashan, , Rashtrasevika Samiti b.. An organisation of Hindu women, Open Space and Double Locks 27 Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts Bangalore: Jagarana Prakashana, , ; V.
Nene, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya: Suruchi Prakashan, , 12, 49f. An organisation of Hindu women, 16, Seshadri, ed. A Vision in Action Bangalore: Jagarana Prakashan, , Though it was decided during the inception of the Samiti that there would not be any full-timers, in the mids some sevikas expressed their desire to work full-time for the organization.
Some remain pracharikas for life while others marry and continue their work as lay sevikas. A couple of months later K. Sudarshan was appointed as the fifth sarsanghchalak of the RSS. A central senior leader was always present during interviews with sevikas who were not members of the executive committee. In a collective interview with the young pracharikas, the leader of the group turned off the tape recorder when a question had been formulated and urged the question to be discussed by the members of the group.
The discussion charcha implied that the leader commented on suggestions made by the younger pracharikas. When the recorder was turned on, the pracharikas provided ideologically correct answers and had been given a lesson in the official policy of the RSSa. A fuller account of the RSSa construction of female gender is found in E. Hellman, Hindu Women as Religious Agents forthcoming.
Interview with Ms. John E. Wlcoff of Princeton Road, Plainsboro, to the Rev. Allen Line, son of Mr. Walter Z. Line of Carlisle. Miss Marlene I. Bruce Bedford Jr. Cren k City and Fort Lauder- dab- Fla.. Tocher, abn Ot Dr. Ralph B. Y ; May Princeton University Chapel. Wil- liam D. Perkins, principal of the School,! A native of Lower.
A former director of the Massa- , ,. Perkins participated in Nan- tucket's Cottage Hospital fund- raising drives and operates his hort wave radio station. Simeon Moss and Mrs. Lester Chandler will speak on civil rights. The exhibit is scheduled fro'm 3 to 5: Projects in stone, metal, wood, i mosaic tile, in addi- tion to paintings, will be shown.
Anyone living or working within a mile radius o[ Princeton may enter the exhibit. Kent KUbourne is chairman ot the show. Two winners wiii be named, one selected by a professional jury, and the other chosen by popular vote. AH those viewing the ex- hibit will be asked to vote tor the work he considers best. Both winners will receive a J20 picture frame donated by the Little Gallery.
Kathleen Wooley, daughter of Mr. Wooley Jr. Hymer- linc. A citizens com- mlttee, whose chairman is Henry Bond, will assist in the project. The 32 members of the seamanship and i oai handling class at the Princeton Adult School last se- mester will be given certificates of award Monday at 8: Mollie G.
Airey, member of Flotilla 46 of Westfield. Airey was the first woman accepted in the Third Coast Guard District auxiliary. Auxiliary members examine small boats and conduct informa- A Princeton flotilla is in the - of formation A minimum of ten boat owners 'sail or motor Is required.
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We believe only Governor Stevenson has the dimensions the Presidency now demands. Our delegates to the National Con- vention should know that when they are released by Governor Meyner, New Jersey wants them to support Steven- son. Our purpose is to demonstrate the vast support Stevenson has among the voters.
We want your signature for petitions to present to your delegates at the Democratic National Convention in July. Sign the coupon below if you agree with us, and indicate what additional help you wish to give this Committee. Do this today— time is short! Anderson Richard T. Frost Simeon F. Moss Dean J. Douglas Brown Edward S. Greenbaum Minol C.
Morgan, Jr. John Bullitt E. Coyle William W. Marvel Louis Spence Richard W. Colman H. Please add my name to your list of those urging that Adlai E. Stevenson be nominated as Democratic candidate for President. At the Wellesley Club's annual meeting, the following officers were elected for two-year terms: Mrs Bernard Barehbolte, record- ing pecretary: Robert K.
George I- Mellor, Jr. William Bulloch has been named Development Fund representa- tive. Roger Thompsoi Thom- as Caldwell was appointed prln- [. Male pt to Cedar Lane. Wednea- cl;,v [or Ms work with the troop an,] hi: Ronald MuKkp. June June 11, at the iou! The awards are based on traffic safety records. Ritardi of Trenton who has been assistant personnel dlretor of St.
Phone WAInot Mr. The award was presented for the club's five-year dogwood project, whereby trees were planted in Hopewell. Only non-garden club members could participate. The HopeweH club was r sen ted at the meeting by Thurland B. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday Saturday 8 a. Thursday, 8 a.
Prices effective Thursday, June 2 through Sat. Not responsible for typographical errors. Mem- ber of Twin County Grocers. Town Topic; June S-Jl, June 1 Modern European Paint- ings: University Art Museum. Sunday Hours, 2: Exhibition Continues Through Sunday. Max Mesner, Princeton-Kingston Road.
Friday, June S 4: Piano Recital. Dance, Town Club; Wooden Wheel. Route , Four Miles North of Princeton. Same Time Sat- urday, and June Bernkasteler Schwannen Moselle 2. Platform Meetlnjr. Saturday, June 4 9: French Market, Mrs. Tennis Clinic. Vic ,. Hospital est oi Palmer Stadium. Spring rruis.
Grlggstown; Griggstown Firehouse. Sunday, June 5 Eric F. Covered Dish Supper; Methodist Church. Tuesday, June 7 7: Concx-rt, Orchestral and Chamber Music. Fourth- Si x t h Grades; Littlebrook School. Sunday Hours. Exhibition Continues Through June Colgate vs. Princeton; University Field. Fish Fry.
Thursday, June 9 7: Friday, June 10 5: Same times Sat- Saturday, June 11 Baseball, Yale vs. Telephone WA 82 Dole 'Z:: Drink Ideal Elberta Peaches. WA 4 Question of the Week bands and wives? Where asked: Princeton Public Library. In some cases, it's probably a good thing. After spending 50 weeks together, maybe a couple of weeks apart would be benefi- Mra. Warren Hill.
I think it's crazy. You never get to see your husband much anyway. A vaca- tion is the only time you really can relax and get to know your husband, to find out if you're still in love with each other. It is a wonderful time. I have a year-old son and I still feel the same way about vacations. William Malc-omson, A Dev- ereux Avenue, graduate student in religion: I don't think separate vacations are necessary if you haven't been married very long.
But if you have, particularly if you have children, then, perhaps, it would be a good thing to get away from each other for awhile. Personally, I don't believe in separate vacations because I feel half the fun of going some- where Is sharing the experience with someone you're fond of. I think it's the worst idea I ever heard of. I get along fine most of the time of the year with my family and I don't see any sense of breaking away for one month, especially when things go i well the other Lewis H.
Sarett, Arrenton Road, housewife: I think if they need them, they should take them. William Mrlntyre, Pine Street, painter: I think it is a good idea. I feel a husband should get away once In awhile and vice-versa. He should have a chance to get out with the boys. The same thing holds true for women. It might make them appreciate each other a little more.
Edwin Hinsdale. I don't approve I wouldn't dream of it. Basically, being married is living together, doing things together and just being together. Hugh Butler, Elizabeth, bus driver: I like the Idea. It breaks up the daily routine of seeing each other and I think it would be good for both partners. Ab- sence makes the heart grow fon- der sort-of-thing, you know.
Christine Allais, Nas- sau Street, French teacher. Nas- sau Street School, a Parisien in this country one year, I was sur- prised to discover that so many husbands and wives In this coun- try take separate vacations. In France, a wife would not go on a vacation without her husband. It is done sometimes, but. Pensonally, I don't like the idea. Walter Poster, Jr. Without my wife and family.
It wouldn't be a vacation. Half the fun Is giving your family, as well as yourself, a good time on a vaca- tion. I wouldn't think of taking a vacation with out my husband. My career keeps me away from him the greater part of the week and It gives us great pleasure to be together during our vacation period.
Joseph Wright Jr. Post Road, Princeton Junction, sales- man: I can't see it. I just enjoy being with my wife. Betty Butler. I advocate it. I think a change for each per- son is a good thing. Orley Swartsentruber, Model Avenue, Hopewell, graduate stu- dent in religion.
It depends on what kind of life they normally lead. If the opposite is true, they should spend their vacations together. A ate student, I spend practically all the day time and some of the night hours away from my home so I always spend my with my wife. Fischer, Mercer Road, housewife: I just don't like the idea. I think it's a time when they should be together. Richard E.
I would say: I think the idea, basical- ly, is good, but it would be diffi- cult getting popular Families are usually well-integ- rated and only separate when necessity demands it. I, myself, feel that separate vacations give a couple a fresh point of view, remove tensions that develop in every marriage, and make one more appreciative of the other.
Bruce Kosenblum, 3 Glen- view Drive, housewife: I don't believe in it I think' husbands and. Ralph Grove. Provi Road, caretaker: It all depends where they are going. If it Is just an ordinary vacation trip, then I think a man should take his wife along if he thinks any- thing of her— unless he has 12 kids 1 nwhlch case he should stay at home. But if a man were going to a place where there were all men, like a convention or a club of some kind, then it would be proper for him to leave his wife behind.
Jack Mlnker, Clover Lane, housewife: I don't like the idea because if my husband left on a vacation, I'd have to stay home with the kids and it would be terribly lonely. George RodefeU, 68 Erd- man Avenue: If I'm going to take a vacation, I'd want to take it with my husband because we have always enjoyed doing the same things together.
My hus- band feels the same way. I Glamorene: You'll find it pays fo plant the best. Floribunda non pat. Open Eves. The wid- ow of. PO ft A. Edna M. Uoyd Ond. Russell, 9. Nellie Anderson Rose, Huberl G. TlwmM B. Wil- liam P, c. Arthur P.. The Rev. Edna Dyard, in Phila- delphia.
Also surviving a" two other daughters. The son-ice was hold at tthe homeo. Surviving are six sons, Randolph of Detroit uid Thorns. Nancy Barnes and Mrs. Mae Belle" Smith, all.. Yancey L. In- terment was in Ewing Cemetery. Katherine B. Coffee, she was a member of the Rosary and Alter Society ol St.
Ann's Church and the Mount Carmel Guild. She was a charter member of the Ladies Auxiliary of the Law- renceville Fire Company, and had lived in Lawrenceville most of her life. She was born- in Tren- In addition to her husband, she is survived by six sons. Richard J. Mercer County Free- holder; Donald M.
Coffee, Mau- rice P. Coffee, George R. Coffee and Joseph N. Coffee, all of Lawrenceville. Coffee of Stamford. Mary J. Kerr, Kerr, 37 Hillside Avenue. A Princeton resident for 20 years, she was born in Chatham and was the widow "f Peter J. In addition to her daughter. John J. Kerr of Princeton, and Harold Seattle. Requiem high mass was celebrated in St.
Vala- tie. Arrangements were un- der the direction of the Kimble Funeral Home. The J3th consecutive summer session for students in Princeton and the surrounding area will be held this year at Princeton High School from June 27 to August 5 under Hie direction of Harry W.
All classes will meet Monday through Friday between 8 a. In addition to all regular high school courses. There will also be a non-credit course in typing. Registration will be held at the school from June 20 to Mem- bers of the faculty for the sum- mer will be Joseph V. Drulis, bus- iness education; Morrill F. Shep- gd mathematics; Frank M.
Soda, foreign languages; Joseph L. Pierson, social studies; H. Lee McConahy, English; Mr. Frances Forsbeck, and Mrs. Mar- garet Lutz, elementary. Ram- sey. College Road. She will sail later this month for the Nether- lands, where she will spend the summer and the first semester of the school year. Frank E. Air Conditioning Alexander St. The summer music school will be in operation at Princeton High School again this year.
The five- week program, now in Its ninth year, will begin June Pupils from fifth grade through high school will be accepted for Instruction on selected Instru- ments. The vocal program will be open to students from eighth grade through high school. Registration may be completed either in advance by mail or in person at the High School on June 23 or The Summer choir, which in- cludes 20 male voices, will again be under the direction of Dr.
Da- vid H. Its members were chosen from the present Winter choir at the seminary, which rep- resents five nations and 26 col- leges and seminaries. The tour will end August 1 with a concert in Harrisburg, Pa. In the interim the choir will have sung at least twice each week- day and three or four times on Sunday in Colombia, South Ameri- ca, and in the capital cities of Panama, Costa Rica.
Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador and Gua- temala, as well as in 11 eastern and southeastern states. Organized in under the leadership of Dr. Jones, the choir has performed in hundreds of churches throughout the eastern seaboard area, singing three or four times every Sunday during the academic year. Participating in the recital will be: Oavid H.
In addition to singing in church- es, the choir has appeared in many schools and colleges, mili- tary bases, hospitals, civic clubs and churoh and youth assemblies. It has broadcast often over net- work radio and television and has recorded a long-playing album for RCA Victor.
Chil- dren in the fourth, fifth and sixth grades at the Littiebrook School will give a concert of orchestral and chamber music Tuesday eve- ning at 7: It will be under the direclion of Arno Safran, Instrumental music teacher at the school. Plum's studio, 24 Murray Place. Students performing are James Affleck, Susan Landauer. The di- viosion, which includes work- ers, is in charge of raising the largest share of the campaign goal.
Taplin, who lives at 55 Armour Road, served as assistant to the President of Princeton University from to They went to New York to take the tests. Ydu can give your child. Two sessions. June 20 — July 29 and Aug. Registration by personal application only. For appointment and details, please telephone MR. Magnificent facilities on a tremendous acre farm between Prince- ton and Lawrenceville Plenty of space for ball games, archery, hayrides, cookouts Milk provided.
Hours 9 to 4: Clothlno aiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiu iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiim iiiiinmiiiiiiii The Cranbury Inn Offers I Distinctly. Transportation to the Wooden Wheel will be available at the Palmer Square pnikinc, lot a! In addition, he chin is planning a picnic for the follow- ing Wednesday, June 8. The purpose of the group Is to promote petitions and coordinate efforts to keep uncommitted dele- gations uncommitted until the convention according to Mr.
Mar- vel. Present at the session In addition to Mr. Marvel were Mrs. Elmer Beller, Mrs. Robert Van de Velde, Mrs. Patricia Hart- le, Mrs. Malcolm Diamond, Mar- DR. The entire estate of Dr. Charles R. Erdman, who died May 9 at the age of 93, will go to his wife and four children under the terms of his will.
Erdman was former moderator of the General Assem- bly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States and a long- time Princeton resident. Cur- ry. Erdman's widow, Mrs. Estelle Pardee Erd- man of 20 Library Place, receive the income from his estate dur- ing her lifetime. Upon her death, the four chil- dren will receive equal shares of the residue.
The children are Dr. Erdman Jr. Henry E. Lewis of Ann Arbor, Mich. Francis G. Cleveland of Tam- worlh, N. Three children received prizes at t he Lower School commencement ex- ercises at Miss Fine's School last week. Linda Baker, daughter of Mr. Wolcott N. Baker of Mt. Lucas Road, and Linda Hart, daughter of Mr. Richard W. Hart of Jeffer- son Road, shared the Ruth Colt Prize for outstanding effort and achievement, while James Arm- strong was honored for his out- standing effort, achievement and group spirit.
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Epstein notes that Christian fundamentalist women exercise xviii Fundamentalism and Women in World Religions considerable power. Kcmpton Hastings and the beginners' clas- ses in oils and water color con- ducted by Rex Goreleigh. The Smith Club schol- arships, now two in number, are supported by funds raised through an auction In January. Vivian has 1 job listed on their profile. Hindutva Boundaries for Female Gender After thus having depicted and preliminary assessed six codes for ideal womanhood in the hindutva discourse, it is now time to locate the boundaries and the conditions for the empowerment of women inherent in the codes.
For more on the death of Pickett, see Women under the Bo Tree, chapter 3. Thorn Lord who heard the fresh lumber crackling The second, about reaction to terror in early American history was less so - I skimmed that part. But Astha Bhuja is also regarded as a symbol of the ideal Hindu woman. Rescue is a good word to describe what a lot of these movies are all about.
Even in the early years of the party, she concludes, the liberation of women had more symbolic than actual import: Welcome to our last outdoor concert Friday the 17th 6 - 10pm with Amarillo. If it Is just an ordinary vacation trip, then I think a man should take his wife along if he thinks any- thing of her— unless he has 12 kids 1 nwhlch case he should stay at home. Belief in this community and its people Small businesses are the backbone of this community and the Nation I own a small business Economic Development will pave and pay the way to an even better future I am not afraid to make difficult decisions I am a listener and believe learning never ends.